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Lionsmane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus)

Lionsmane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus)

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Lion's Mane mushroom

Lions Mane / Yamabushitake / Hedgehog Barbed Beard / Lion's Mane

In any case, the hedgehog beard is an excellent edible mushroom and extremely popular in Asia. In traditional Chinese medicine it is used to strengthen the digestive organs and the liver, as an immune stimulant and anti-inflammatory.

He is (still!) little known in Europe. Its aroma is multi-layered and complex. When cooked, it can be reminiscent of lobster, but also coconut or citrus fruits. The bite is tender, yet firm like chicken and, when pulled apart, it perfectly imitates so-called “pulled pork”.

The hedgehog beard grows in deciduous forests in Europe, North America and Asia (primarily in Japan and China). And here!

Your body thanks you for the valuable B vitamins, vitamin D, minerals and trace elements such as potassium, calcium, iron, selenium, germanium, copper and zinc.

What is the Lions Mane Mushroom?

The Lions Mane mushroom, also known as yamabushitake, hedgehog beard or lion's mane, is a large, white, shaggy mushroom that is visually reminiscent of a lion's mane (hence its name). This mushroom is used both culinary and medicinally in Asian countries such as China, India, Japan, and Korea (14). Lions Mane can be enjoyed raw, cooked, dried or as a tea. Extracts of the mushroom can also be found in dietary supplements. The taste of this mushroom is described by many as reminiscent of seafood such as crab or lobster (16). Lions Mane mushroom contains a number of bioactive compounds that have positive effects on the body, particularly the brain, heart and digestive tract. Due to these effects, the Lions Mane mushroom is enjoying growing popularity in the areas of health and athletic performance.

What makes the Lions Mane mushroom so special?

Lions Mane mushroom contains large amounts of beta-glucan polysaccharides - a type of naturally occurring glucose polymer found in the cell walls of certain fungi and bacteria. In addition, this mushroom is also rich in lectins, proteins, lipids, hericenone, erinacin and terpenoids, which is basically everything an athlete needs for maximum performance.

Along with beta-glucan, these compounds are responsible for many of the health benefits such as reduced fatigue, improved cognitive function, reduction of inflammation, improved digestive health, and better immune system function that are associated with Lions Mane mushroom (3).

What benefits does the Lions Mane mushroom have for athletes?

In addition to a variety of other potential health benefits, which we will discuss in detail shortly, the Lions Mane mushroom is particularly interesting for athletes due to the following effects:

  • Reducing fatigue and increasing energy
  • Improving focus, concentration and general cognitive function
  • Reduction of inflammation
  • Reducing recovery time after training
  • Improving digestive health
  • Improving immune system function

Potential health benefits

Lions Mane can reduce fatigue and increase muscle energy

Physical exhaustion is an enemy that every athlete has to constantly fight against. Rapid regeneration after training or any other form of exercise is crucial for every athlete. Scientific studies have shown that the Lions Mane mushroom can reduce physical fatigue (4). In a study conducted on mice, markers of physical fatigue such as blood lactate levels, serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels were lower in the group of mice given Lions Mane. This study showed that Lions Mane could promote fatigue-reducing activity and increase athletic performance. The same study also showed that Lions Mane was able to increase tissue glycogen levels, muscle energy storage, and antioxidant activity (4).

What does all of this mean for the athlete? Well, Lions Mane appears to not only reduce fatigue but also have the potential to increase muscle energy.

Lions Mane can improve focus and concentration

Mental sharpness is just as important for athletes as physical performance. Improving focus and concentration can dramatically improve athletic performance. Lions Mane has shown that this mushroom can improve cognitive function and in particular focus, concentration and memory (5). Some experts even consider Lions Mane to be the most powerful “brain food” because this mushroom stimulates the production of the natural growth factor NGF. NGF is a protein that is crucial for the development, function and survival of the brain's neurons (5).

Other neurological benefits associated with ingredients contained in Lions Mane include reduced irritability, improved neuron growth, better regeneration of damaged nerves, and overall improvement in cognitive function (6, 7).

Lions Mane can reduce inflammation and oxidative stress and shorten recovery time. Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to be the cause of many modern diseases including heart disease, cancer and autoimmune diseases (18). Scientific research shows that Lions Mane contains powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds that may help reduce the effects of these diseases (18).

A study that examined the antioxidant effects of 14 different mushroom species found that Lions Mane had the fourth highest antioxidant activity. The authors of the study therefore recommended Lions Mane as a good dietary source of antioxidants (19). Several animal studies found that Lions Mane extracts reduced markers of inflammation and oxidative stress and may be particularly helpful in controlling inflammatory bowel disease, liver damage, and stroke (20, 21, 22, 23). Lions Mane may also help reduce some of the health risks associated with overweight and obesity, as it has been shown that this mushroom can reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory compounds secreted by fatty tissue (24).

Physical exhaustion can also cause inflammation and increase oxidative stress, which can lead to muscle tissue damage and impaired muscle contractility. Studies have shown that nutritional antioxidant manipulation can accelerate post-exercise recovery through both a reduction in muscle fatigue and a reduction in levels of reactive oxygen species that are harmful to the body (8). Lions Mane is rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds and can therefore reduce reactive oxygen species and the time required for muscle recovery. Studies have also shown that Lions Mane contains natural ACE inhibitors, which can relax blood vessels, increase blood flow and reduce strain on the heart (9).

Lions Mane can improve fat metabolism

The two primary energy sources for metabolism are carbohydrates and fats. While the body's carbohydrate stores are limited, the same is not true for fat stores. For athletes, the ability to metabolize fat as an energy source is ideal for longer training efforts to increase endurance. Scientific research has shown that Lions Mane extracts improve fat metabolism, which can be beneficial for endurance athletes (10). Another study found that administration of Lions Mane extract led to increased fat metabolism and reduced weight gain in mice despite a high-fat diet (11). These results suggest that Lions Mane could potentially improve fat metabolism in endurance athletes.

Lions Mane can improve digestive health and protect against ulcers in the digestive tract area

Lions Mane has natural antibacterial properties that have been shown to protect against harmful bacteria such as H. Pylori - the leading cause of stomach ulcers. There is also evidence that Lions Mane may also protect the stomach lining from other harmful substances (12). Peptic ulcers are often caused by two main factors: overgrowth of the H. pylori bacterium and damage to the gastric mucosa, which can often be attributed to long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (25). Lions Mane extracts may protect against stomach ulcers by inhibiting the growth of H. Pylori bacteria and protecting the stomach lining from damage (26, 27). Several studies have shown that Lions Mane can prevent the growth of H. pylori in test tubes, but there are no studies conducted on live test subjects (28, 29). However, an animal study found that Lions Mane extract was more effective than traditional stomach acid blockers in preventing alcohol-induced stomach ulcers, with Lions Mane showing no adverse side effects (30).

However, ulcers can develop not only in the stomach, but anywhere in the digestive tract including the large and small intestines. Lions Mane may also reduce inflammation and prevent tissue damage in other areas of the digestive tract. Lions Mane might even help treat inflammatory bowel diseases like ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (31, 32, 33). A study of ulcerative colitis patients found that taking a Lions Mane supplement containing 14% Lions Mane extract significantly reduced symptoms and improved quality of life after 3 weeks (34). However, when the same study was repeated with Crohn's disease patients, the benefits were no greater than with a placebo (35). It is important to note that herbal supplements used in these studies contained multiple types of mushrooms, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the specific effects of Lions Mane. Overall, scientific research suggests that Lions Mane extracts may help prevent the development of ulcers, although further human studies are needed.

Lions Mane promotes immune system function

A strong immune system protects the body from bacteria, viruses and other disease-causing pathogens. A weak immune system, on the other hand, increases the risk of infectious diseases. In this regard, it may be interesting for athletes that a strong immune system supports the body's regeneration. For athletes who regularly push their bodies to their limits, a healthy immune system is essential to protect the body from all types of pathogens. There are a number of scientific studies that suggest Lions Mane can improve immune system function. Several studies suggest that Lions Mane increases immune system activity, thereby protecting the body from pathogens that enter the digestive tract through the mouth or nose (13). These effects may be at least partially related to beneficial changes in gut bacteria that stimulate the immune system (36). In addition, another study showed that fungal proteins contained in Lions Mane improve the function of the immune system and can be used as a so-called “functional food” for immunotherapy (14). One study even found that daily supplementation with Lions Mane extract quadrupled the lifespan of mice injected with a lethal dose of Salmonella (37). Although more research is needed, the immune system stimulating effects of Lions Mane are very promising.

Lions Mane could protect against dementia

The brain's ability to grow and form new connections between neurons decreases with age, which may explain why mental function declines in many older adults (38). Studies have found that Lions Mane contains two special compounds that can stimulate brain cell growth: Hericenone and Erinacines (39). In addition, animal studies have shown that Lions Mane may help protect against Alzheimer's disease, a degenerative brain disease that causes progressive memory loss. Lions Mane and the extracts of this mushroom have been shown to both reduce symptoms of memory loss in mice and prevent the formation of amyloid-beta plaques, which accumulate in the brain in Alzheimer's disease and cause neuronal damage (40, 41, 42, 43). While there are no human studies yet that have directly examined the benefits of Lions Mane for Alzheimer's in humans, there is evidence that Lions Mane may improve mental function. A study of older adults suffering from mild cognitive impairment found that consuming 3 grams of Lions Mane powder daily for 4 months significantly improved mental function, although these benefits disappeared when supplementation was discontinued was (44). Lions Mane's ability to promote nerve growth and protect the brain from Alzheimer's-related damage may explain some of its positive effects on brain health.

Lions Mane can help relieve mild symptoms of depression and anxiety

Up to a third of the population of Western countries suffer from symptoms of anxiety and depression (45). Although there are many causes of anxiety disorders and depression, chronic inflammation could be an important contributing factor. New animal studies have found that Lions Mane extracts have anti-inflammatory effects that have been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in mice (46, 47). Other animal research has found that Lions Mane extracts may also help regenerate brain cells and improve the function of the hippocampus, a region of the brain responsible for processing memories and emotional responses (48, 49) . Scientists believe that improved hippocampal function may explain the reduction in anxiety and depression seen in mice given Lions Mane extracts. A study conducted in menopausal women also showed that eating cookies containing Lions Mane extract daily for a month helped reduce feelings of irritability and anxiety (50). Lions Mane Could Speed ​​Healing After Nervous System Injuries The nervous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and other nerves that run through the body. These three components work together and transmit signals that control almost every bodily function. Injuries to the brain or spinal cord can have devastating consequences. They often cause paralysis or loss of mental function and can take a long time to heal. However, scientific research has found that Lions Mane extracts can speed healing in these types of injuries by accelerating the growth and repair of nerve cells (51, 52, 52). Lions Mane extract has been shown to reduce the time required for healing by 23 to 41% in rats with nervous system injuries (54). Lions Mane extracts may also help reduce the severity of damage following a stroke. In one study, lions mane extract given to rats immediately after a stroke helped reduce inflammation and reduce the amount of brain damage caused by the stroke (55).

Lions Mane could reduce risk of heart disease

Primary risk factors for heart disease include obesity, high triglyceride levels, large amounts of oxidized cholesterol, and an increased tendency to develop blood clots. Scientific research shows that Lions Mane may influence some of these factors and reduce the risk of heart disease. Studies in rats and mice have found that Lions Mane extracts can improve fat metabolism and reduce triglyceride levels (56). In one study, rats were fed a high-fat diet and given a daily dose of Lions Mane extract. These rats had 27% lower triglyceride levels and 42% less weight gain after 28 days (57). Since overweight/obesity and high triglyceride levels are both considered risk factors for heart disease, this is one way Lions Mane can contribute to heart health. Test-tube research also found that Lions Mane extract can help reduce oxidation of cholesterol in the bloodstream (58). Oxidized cholesterol molecules tend to adhere to the walls of arteries, increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. For this reason, reducing this oxidation is beneficial for heart health. Additionally, Lions Mane contains a compound called hericenone B, which may reduce the rate of blood clotting and reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke (59). In summary, Lions Mane appears to have positive effects on heart and blood vessel health through multiple pathways.

Lions Mane can help control diabetes symptoms

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when the body loses the ability to control its blood sugar levels. As a result, these remain continuously elevated. Chronic elevated blood sugar levels ultimately cause complications such as kidney disease, nerve damage in the hands and legs, and vision loss. Lions Mane could be useful for controlling diabetes as this mushroom can improve blood sugar control and reduce some of the side effects of diabetes. Several animal studies have shown that Lions Mane can cause significant reductions in blood sugar levels in healthy and diabetic mice, at doses as low as 6 mg per kilogram of body weight (60, 61). One way Lions Mane may lower blood sugar levels is through the activity of the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, which breaks down carbohydrates in the small intestine (62). When this enzyme is blocked, the body is no longer able to digest carbohydrates effectively, resulting in lower blood sugar levels. In addition to reducing blood sugar levels, Lions Mane extracts could reduce diabetic nerve pain in the hands and feet. In mice with diabetic nerve damage, six weeks of treatment with Lion's Mane extract resulted in reduced pain and lower blood sugar levels and also increased antioxidant levels (63).

Lions Mane may have anti-cancer effects

Cancer occurs when the DNA of the cells is damaged, resulting in uncontrolled cell division and growth. Some research suggests that Lions Mane may have cancer-fighting properties thanks to some of its unique compounds (64, 65). When Lions Mane extract is added to human cancer cells in a test tube, it causes a faster rate of cancer cell death. This has been demonstrated with different types of cancer cells including liver cancer cells, colon cancer cells, stomach cancer cells and blood cancer cells (66, 67, 68). However, at least one study did not observe any effects of this type, which is why further investigation is needed (69). In addition, Lions Mane Extracts have been observed to be able to slow the spread of cancer. A study in mice with colon cancer found that taking lion's mane extract reduced the spread of the cancer to the lungs by 69% (70). Another study found that Lions Mane extract was more effective than traditional cancer drugs at slowing tumor growth in mice, with fewer side effects (67).

However, these are preliminary results, which means that Lions Mane should under no circumstances be viewed as a replacement for conventional cancer therapy!

Safety and side effects

To date, no human studies have examined the side effects of Lions Mane or its extracts, but Lions Mane still appears to be very safe. In rats, no adverse side effects were observed even at high doses in the range of 5 grams of Lions Mane per kilogram of body weight per day for 3 months or lower doses for 3 months (71, 72, 73). However, people who are allergic or sensitive to mushrooms should avoid Lions Mane as this plant is also a fungus. There are documented cases of people complaining of breathing problems or skin rashes after exposure to Lions Mane, which are believed to be related to allergies (74, 75).

Conclusion

Lions Mane continues to grow in popularity due to its numerous health benefits and the potential benefits for athletes make this mushroom a unique addition to any sports diet. New studies continue to show positive effects of Lions Mane on physical and mental performance. Lions Mane can be incorporated into the diet in a variety of ways, which include eating the whole mushroom or using extracts and supplements. Athletes who want to further increase their performance should use Lions Mane on a daily basis in the form of supplements.

credentials

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